Map Of India Rivers Upsc

Posted By admin On 21/08/21

This course covers The Rivers of India through Maps. (Hindi) UPSC Geography - Indian River System through Maps. 249 ratings. 34 reviews. The Yamuna takes place in the India river map as one of the important rivers in India. Yamunotri, Champasar Glacier are the sources of Yamuna and its length is 1376 km. It flows through Agra, Allahabad, Mathura, Yamuna Nagar, Noida, Delhi, Etawah, Baghpat, Firozabad, Kalpi, Hamirpur cities. The Rivers of India play a significant role in the lives of Indian society as well as in the life of the aspirant pursuing the UPSC Civil Service Exam. The river systems provide irrigation, drinking water, economical transportation, power, as well as grant livelihoods for a large number of population. Whereas, the Peninsular rivers have smaller and fixed course with well-adjusted valleys. The Himalayan rivers have very large basins as their catchment area, whereas, the Peninsular rivers have relatively smaller basins. The Himalayan river system is young and youthful, and the rivers are active and deepening in the valleys. The source or flow of all of the Pakistan’s rivers pass through India first, so this naturally provides India with an upper hand in controlling the outflow of these rivers. The Indian Government has more than 40 projects that are either already completed or in the proposal stage on the western rivers.

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  • The drainage system is an integrated system of tributaries and a trunk stream which collect andfunnel surface water to the sea, lake or some other body of water.

  • The total area that contributeswater to a single drainage system is known as a drainage basin.

  • A geometric arrangement of streams in a region, determined by slope, differing rock resistance toweathering and erosion, climate, hydrologic variability, and structural controls of the landscape isknown as a drainage pattern.

  • Thus, drainage pattern refers to a design which a river andits tributaries form together, from its source to its mouth.

  • India has the following drainage patterns:

    • The Antecedent or Inconsequent Drainage:The rivers that existed before the upheaval of the Himalayas and cut their courses southward bymaking gorges in the mountains are known as the antecedent rivers.

    • Consequent Rivers:The rivers which follow the general direction of slope are known as the consequent rivers. Most ofthe rivers of peninsular India are consequent rivers.

    • Subsequent Rivers:A tributary stream that is eroded along an underlying belt of non-resistant rock after the maindrainage pattern (consequent river) has been established is known as a subsequent river. Due tothe northward slope of the Peninsula towards the Great Plains, the rivers originating from theVindhyan and the Satpura ranges flow northward into the Ganga system. The Chambal, Sind,Ken, Betwa, Tons and Son meet the Yamuna and the Ganga at right angles. They are thesubsequent drainage of the Ganga drainage system.

    • Superimposed Epigenetic (Discordant) or Superinduced Drainage:It is formed when a stream with a course originally established on a cover of rock now removedby erosion, so that the stream or drainage system is independent of the newly exposed rocks andstructures.

    • Dendritic Drainage:A term used for drainage which is branching thereby giving theappearance of a tree. Most of the rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plains are of dendritic type

    • Trellis Drainage:Trellis is a rectangular pattern formed where two sets of structural controls occurs at right angles.In a trellis pattern, the river forms a net like system and the tributaries flow roughly parallel toeach other.

    • Barbed Pattern:A pattern of drainage in which the confluence of a tributary with the main river is characterized bya discordant junction-as if the tributary intends to flow upstream and not downstream.

    • Rectangular Drainage:The drainage pattern marked by right-angled bends and right-angled junctions betweentributaries and the main stream is known as rectangular drainage.

    • Radial Pattern:It is a pattern characterised by outflowing rivers, away from a central point, analogous with thespokes of a wheel. It tends to develop on the flanks of a dome or a volcanic cone.

    • Annular Pattern:In this drainage pattern, the subsequent streams follow curving or arcuate courses prior to joiningthe consequent stream.

    • Parallel Drainage:The drainage pattern in which the rivers flow almost parallel to each other is known as paralleldrainage.

    • Deranged Pattern:This is an uncoordinated pattern of drainage characteristic of a region recently vacated by anice-sheet.

Indian rivers are of twocategories: northern rivers and peninsular rivers.

Northern rivers:


It has 5 tributaries Chenab,Ravi, Beas, Satluj and Jhelum. Chenab is the largest. The Indus is one of the most important drainage systems of the subcontinent of India. It has alength of 2880 km, of which 709 km lies in India. The catchment area of the Indus is about 1,165,000sq km, out of which about 321,284 sq km is in India.

Satluj is the only one thatdoesn't originate in India.

Ravi, Beas, Satluj, Chenab and Yamuna flow through Himachal Pradesh.

Jhelum (Vitasta):

1.Srinagarison banks of Jhelum. It is the most important river of Kashmir.


Chenab (Asikni):

1.Twoheadwardtributaries: Chandra and Bhaga

Ravi (Parushni or Irawati):

1.SourcenearRohtang pass in Himachal Pradesh


Beas (Vipasa or Argikiya):

1.SourcenearRohtangpass in Himachal Pradesh


Satluj (Satadru or Satudri):


Ghaggar (the legendary Saraswati)

  • This is an inland drainage which rises in the talus fan of the Shiwaliks of Sirrnur near Ambala(Haryana),

  • After entering the plains, it disappears, but reappears at Kamal District

  • At present, the entire area ispractically a desert, and the Ghaggar-Hakra are practically ephemeral streams coming into flow only during the season of general rains.


Originates asBhagirathi from Gangotri. Theriver is home to more then 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Gangariver- dolphin.

Leftbank tributaries: Kosi, Ramganga, Gandhak, Gomati, Gaghar.

Rightbank tributaries: Yamuna, Son, Hugli

The Yamuna River(length 1380 km)

  • This is the longest and the western-most tributary of the Ganga. Its source lies in the Yamunotri Glacier On the western slopes of Banderpunch

  • It joins the Ganga at Allahabad.

  • The important tributaries Of the Yamuna are mostly the right bank tributaries originating from the Aravallis, Vindhyan Range and the Malwa Plateau of Madhya Pradesh. The Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken and Tons are the main righthand tributaries of the Yamuna River.

The Chambal (length 960 km)

  • The Chambal River is famous for its extensive ravines which it hascarved along in the lower Chambal Valley.


Originates in Kailash and entersinto India as Dibang. Through the Malda gap between Rajmahal andGaro hills passes into Bay of Bengal. Enters Bangladesh and isknown as Jamuna. Meets Ganga and is now called Padma. Then meetsMeghna river and is called Meghna. Forms a large delta.

Fig 2: Ganga andBrahmaputra

Peninsular rivers:

Fig 3: Peninsular rivers

East flowing rivers: kaveri,godawari, krishna, meghna, tungabhadra, mahanadi, damodar,subarnarekha.

Damodar – source in chota nagpurplateau.

Godawari – dakshin ganga

Krishna – source nearmahabaleshwar.

Mahanadi – hirakud dam

Rushkiya river – mouth of riveris hatching site for olive ridley turtles.

Olive ridley turtles- the mostabundant sea turtles in the world. Live in warm waters ofpacific, atlantic and indian ocean. Odissa coast is thelargest mass hatching site for olive ridley turtles.

West flowing river: Narmada andTapti. These rivers form no delta as they dont carry anyalluvial sediments.

Physiographic Divisions of the Great Plains of India

  • The Great Plains of India are a remarkably homogeneous surface with an imperceptible slope. They are a featureless alluvial fertile plains formed mostly by the depositional process of theHimalayan and Vindhyan rivers.

  • The NorthernPlains of India may be divided into the following sub-regions:

    • The Bhabar Plain: It is highly porous tract of land where small streams disappear into the soil and only large streams survive. This tract isn't suitable for the survival of crops and thus only big trees grow here that have long roots. The inhabitants of these regions are the cattle herders (Gujjars)

    • Tarai tract: It is a marshy tract. However it has been mostly reclaimed for agriculture.

    • The Bhangar (Bangar) Plains:These are upland alluvial tracts of the Great Plains of India, formed by the older alluviums. The Bhangar land lies above the flood limits of the rivers. The soil is dark in colour, richin humus content and productive. It contains concretions and nodules of impure calcium carbonateor 'Kankar'. In relatively drier areas, the Bhangar also exhibits small tracts of saline and alkalineefflorescences known as 'Reh', 'Kallar' or 'Thur'. Bhangar is generally a well drained and the mostproductive land of the Great Plains of India.

    • The Khadar Plains: The new alluvium tracts along the courses of the rivers are known as the 'Khadar' or 'Bet lands.The khadar tracts are enriched by fresh deposits of silt every year during the rainy season.

Brahmaputra Plain

  • It is the eastern part of the Great Plains of India. It is a depositional plain, that is surrounded by water from all three sides.

  • The Assam Valley is characterised by a steep slope along its northern margin but the southern side has a gradual fall from the Meghalaya Plateau. The whole length of the plain is traversed by the Brahmaputra. Due to the low gradient, the Brahmaputra is a highly braided river having numerous islands.

  • Majuli (area 930 sq km) is the largestriver island of India and the second largest in the world after the Marajo Island of the Amazon River.

The Indian Islands

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  • India has a total of 615 islands, of which 572 lie in the Bay of Bengal, and the remaining 43 in the Arabian Sea.

  • The Bay of Bengal islands include the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which are largely tectonic and volcanic in origin, while the islands of the Arabian Sea are mainly coral formations.

  • One of the largest and also the rarest crabs in the world, the Giant Robber Crab, can be found in the Wandoor Marine Biosphere Reserve in south Andaman and Great Nicobar Islands. Its powerfulclaws help it to climb the coconut tree and break the hard shell of its fruit.

  • Lakshadweep islands are separated from the Maldive Islands by the Eight Degree Channel.

  • The Andaman Islands have been formed by the extension of theTertiary mountain chain of Purvachal. Thephysiography of the Nicobar islands is mainly of coral origin.


  • The pattern of the seasonal flow of water in a river is called its regime. The main difference in theflow pattern of the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers is caused by the differences in climate.

  • The Himalayan livers are perennial and their regimes are dependent on the pattern of water supplyboth from snow-melt and rainfall. Their regimes are monsoonal as well as glacial.

  • The regime ofmost of the peninsular rivers, on the other hand, are only monsoonal as they arecontrolled by rainfall alone.

RiverSourceLength in kmMain tributaries
GodavariTrimbak PlateauNear Nasik {Maharashtra)1465Manjra, Penganga, WardhaWain ganga, Indravati,Saban, Pranhita
KrishnaNear Mahabaleshwar(Maharashtra)1400Koyna, Ghataprabha,Malprabha, Bhima,Tungbhadra, Musi,Muneru
NarmadaArnarkantak 1310Hiran, Orsang, Barna, Kolar,Burhnar, Tawa, Kundi
MahanadiDandakaranya Plateaunear Raipur857 Ib, Mand, Hasdeo,Seonath, Ong,Jonk, Tel
KaveriTaal Kaveri800Herangi, Hernavati,Lokpavni, Shimsa, Arkavati,Kabani, Bhavani, Amravathi
Tapi Multai in Betul Dist,(M.P.)730Puma, Betul, Patki, Ganjal,Dhatranj, Bokad, Amravati

Comparison of the Peninsular and the Extra-Peninsular Rivers

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PeninsularExtra-Peninsular (Himalayan)
The rivers of Peninsular India aremuch older. Some of them are as oldas the Pre-Cambrian Period.The rivers of the Extra-Peninsular India aremuch younger with few exceptions like Indus, Ganga
They are mostly consequent or rejuvenatedrivers.Inconsequent rivers mostly
small basins except for godavarilarge basins
The channels of these rivers are broad.The channels of these rivers in the upper coursesform gorges, waterfalls, and rapids.
Negligible vertical erosionSignificant vertical, lateral erosion
Slow moving, low carrying capacity, mainly depositional agentsSwift movements, transport huge quantity of sediments, active erosional and depositional agents.
Shallow meanders, non navigable, seasonal natureMake sharp meanders and ox bow lakes, navigable in plains, perennial nature.
Originate in western ghatsHimalayan origin
Make deltas and estuaries.These rivers make only deltas. The SundarbanDelta is the largest in the world.

Q.Which of the following is/are tributary tributaries of Brahmaputra?
1. Dibang
2. Kameng
3. Lohit
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2016)

  1. 1 only

  2. 2 and 3 only

  3. 1 and 3 only

  4. 1, 2 and 3

Ans . D

  1. Brahmaputra’s main left bank tributaries, viz., Dibang or Sikang and Lohit

  2. the important right bank tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas and Sankosh. Mac cosmetics outlet ukwholesale mac cosmetics outlet uk.

Q.In which of the following regions of India are shale gas resources found?
1. Cambay Basin
2. Cauvery Basin
3. Krishna-Godavari Basin
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2016)

  1. 1 and 2 only

  2. 3 only

  3. 2 and 3 only

  4. 1, 2 and 3

Ans . D

Q.Recently, linking of which of the following rivers was undertaken (UPSC CSAT 2016)

  1. Cauvery and Tungabhadra

  2. Godavari and Krishna

  3. Mahanadi and Sone

  4. Narmada and Tapti

Ans . B

  1. Andhra Pradesh Government has succeeded in interlinking Krishna-Godavari rivers through the Pattiseema lift irrigation scheme and 10,000 cusecs of water from the Godavari was being presently drawn on a daily basis through the project to meet the requirements of the Krishna delta.

Q.Recently, which of the following States has explored the possibility of constructing an artificial inland port to be connected to sea by a long navigational channel? (UPSC CSAT 2016)

Map Of India Rivers Upsc
  1. Andhra Pradesh

  2. Chhattisgarh

  3. Karnataka

  4. Rajasthan

Ans . D

  1. Rajasthan wants to develop artificial inland shipping port at Jalore, it’ll be connected to the Arabian Sea by developing a channel along the Kutch Creek.

Q.Consider the following rivers:
Which of the above flows / flow through Arunachal Pradesh? (UPSC CSAT 2014)

  • 1 only

  • 2 and 3 only

  • 1 and 3 only

  • 1, 2 and 3

Ans . B

  1. The Barak is an important river in Manipur and Mizoram

  2. The barak river , the head stream of Meghna rises in the hills in Manipur”

Q.Which one of the following pairs of islands is separated from each other by the ‘Ten Degree Channel’? (UPSC CSAT 2014)

  • Andaman and Nicobar

  • Nicobar and Sumatra

  • Maldives and Lakshadweep

  • Sumatra and Java

Ans . A

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  1. The Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south are separated by a water body called 10 degree channel

Chapter Review

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Discussions and Comments

Q.1. There is a place A with longitude 060o East. There is another place B with longitude 090o East. If local time at place A is 1200 Hrs. What would be local time at Place B?

  1. a) 1200 Hrs
  2. b) 1400 Hrs
  3. c) 1000 Hrs
  4. d) 1220 Hrs

Answer: (b)

Explanation: 15o = 1 Hour

Q.2. Which of the following is correct about India?

1) India has the total area of 3.28 million sq. Km.

2) India has a coastline of 6100 km in the mainland.

3) India has a total coastline of 7600 km including islands.

  1. a) 1 and 2 only b) 2 and 3 only
  2. c) 1 and 3 only d) All of the above

Answer: (d)

Q.3. What is the correct order of river from north to south?

  1. a) Indus, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas
  2. b) Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, Ravi
  3. c) Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas
  4. d) Indus, Chenab, Jhelum, Beas, Ravi

Answer: (c)

Q.4. What is the correct order of Mountains from East to West?

  1. a) Garo Hills, Jaintia Hills, Naga Hills, Khasi Hills
  2. b) Garo Hills, Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, Naga Hills
  3. c) Jaintia Hills, Garo Hills, Khasi Hills, Naga Hills
  4. d) Jaintia Hills, Garo Hills, Naga Hills, Khasi Hills

Answer: (b)

Q.5. What is the correct order of Mountain Peaks from South to North?

  1. a) Anai Mudi, Doda Betta, Mahendragiri, Malayagiri
  2. b) Anai Mudi, Doda Betta, Malayagiri, Mahendragiri
  3. c) Doda Betta, Anai Mudi, Malayagiri, Mahendragiri
  4. d) Doda Betta, Malayagiri, Anai Mudi, Mahendragiri

Answer: (a)

Q.6. Arrange the following rivers from longest to shortest?

  1. a) Yamuna, Narmada, Mahanadi, Kaveri
  2. b) Narmada, Yamuna, Mahanadi, Kaveri
  3. c) Narmada, Mahanadi, Yamuna, Kaveri
  4. d) Mahanadi, Narmada, Yamuna, Kaveri

Answer: (a)

Q.7. Which of the following cities has maximum northern latitude?

  1. a) Ranchi
  2. b) Dhanbad
  3. c) Jamshedpur
  4. d) Barddhaman

Answer: (b)

Q.8. Which of the following statement is correct about Lake Loktak?

1) It is located in Mizoram.

2) It is one of the site under Ramsar Convention

a) 1 only b) 2 only

c) Both d) None

Answer: (b)

Q.9. Which is the correct order of Islands from North to South in the Nicobar Islands?

  1. a) Car Nicobar, Little Nicobar, Great Nicobar
  2. b) Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar, Car Nicobar
  3. c) Great Nicobar, Car Nicobar, Little Nicobar
  4. d) Little Nicobar, Car Nicobar, Great Nicobar

Answer: (a)

Q.10. Arrange the following islands of Japan from North to South?

  1. a) Honshu, Hokkaido, Shikoku, Kyushu
  2. b) Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku
  3. c) Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
  4. d) Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu

Answer: (d)

Upsc India Exam


Components of Maps


  • Maps are pictures enclosing the whole world in its part in a form of the sheet. The scale is of assistance when measuring in a correct way. The scale is the proportion between the real aloofness on the ground and the expanse revealed on the map


  • There remain 4 fundamental facts such as North, South, East, West.
  • Additional four in-between routes stand north-east (NE), southeast(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW)
  • It is conceivable to trace any location in a perfect way with midway directions.

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  • Diverse aspects like buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines or a well. Consequently, they are illustrated by means of a number of letters, shades, colors, pictures, and outlines on the maps. These symbols give a lot of information in a limited space.
  • Making the most of ciphers, maps are prepared in a straightforward manner which is not that difficult to read.